Electric turbocharging technology shared by
When it comes to turbocharging, anyone who knows anything about cars is no stranger. According to the power source, the supercharging devices on the market can be divided into exhaust turbocharging, mechanical supercharging and electric turbocharging. Turbo supercharging, with its excellent power performance and fuel economy, occupies the majority of the market share, but it also brings about turbine stagnation that troubles almost all manufacturers and consumers. In such circumstances, electric turbines are likely to be the wave of the future. Electric turbines, however? Is it strange? What the hell is this electric turbine technology?
What the hell is an electric turbine?
As the name suggests, exhaust turbochargers use exhaust gas to drive turbines. Mechanical turbochargers are powered directly by the engine, while electric turbochargers are powered by electricity stored in car batteries. Electric turbines are mainly divided into axial flow and centrifugal. Axial flow is similar to the household "blower", low technical content, the greater the power, the smaller the air intake, its fatal shortcomings; Centrifugal air intake increases with the increase of power, which is more suitable for engine inlet supercharging, but the cost is higher.
Today's electric turbocharged engines, usually centrifugal, are installed behind conventional turbochargers, the second half of the intake route, to re-pressurize the turbine's increased intake. Electric turbines usually start at low engine speeds, providing more torque to start and accelerate. In high speed, high speed in the process of automatic shutdown, save electricity. The inherent advantage of electric turbines is that they can start when the engine is running at a low speed, providing sufficient air intake for the engine and solving the hysteresis caused by traditional turbocharging at a low speed. Meanwhile, compared with the combination of exhaust turbocharging and mechanical increase, it has the advantages of low cost and small size. So what about electric turbines, which have such advantages? In fact, we can already see that electric turbo charging is gradually entering the market as relevant technologies mature.
Electric turbines take the stage at the Paris motor show
At the recent Paris auto show, audi SQ7 unveiled its 4.0TDI tri-turbocharger, one of which is an electric turbine. The electric turbine mounted on the audi 4.0TDI engine is designed with centrifugal type, connected with 48V power supply and with a rotation speed of up to 7000rpm. It is installed in the second half of the intake system to supercharge the intake. At the same time, shunt design is adopted. When the electric turbine works, air can be pressurized twice through the electric turbine to increase air intake and reduce turbine hysteresis. When the electric turbine is turned off, air bypasses the electric turbine and goes directly into the engine, saving electricity.
In addition to the electric turbine, audi 4.0TDI engine also adopts the technology of variable section turbine and double turbine series and parallel connection. The maximum output torque is up to 900N·m, and it still has a torque output of over 600N·m when driving at high speed. Such excellent performance, in the same level of turbine engine, can be said to be in the leading position. In addition to audi, companies such as mercedes-benz and Mazda are also likely to adopt electric turbine augers. What we need to consider is, after audi, Mercedes and Mazda, will more manufacturers adopt electric turbochargers?
Conditions are ripe for electric turbines
While electric turbines have great advantages of reducing turbine hysteresis, they also have some disadvantages. For example, adding electric turbines will increase the cost of automobile manufacturing. Conventional 12V lead-acid batteries are unable to cope with the high speed of electric turbines; Vehicle weight gain, not in line with the overall trend of vehicle lightweight; Electric turbines don't last long. But today's internal and external constraints on electric turbines are different...
First of all, because more and more serious environmental pressure and a more strict carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption limits under the policy, at least in the next five to 10 years, is not only China, the world's largest car manufacturers are having to focus on the turbo engine, in such a harsh environment policy and the fierce competition environment, electric turbines can greatly weakened turbo lag, attract more consumers, manufacturers in the new round of competition, compared to the competitive advantage, increased manufacturing costs is perfectly acceptable, moreover the wool is on sheep's body isn't it?
Secondly, with the gradual development of petrol-electric hybrid system and body electronic system, major European manufacturers have planned to abandon the traditional 12V lead-acid battery and adopt 48V lithium battery, so as to meet the normal operation of all kinds of automotive electronic equipment. Thanks to its 48-volt lithium-ion battery, it can drive an electric turbine at a higher speed. Thus, the gradual adoption of 48V power systems has paved the way for the development of electric turbines.
In addition, with the development of brushless motor technology, electric turbines can gradually develop towards the trend of high power, small size and long life, so as to be expected to be used in turbocharged engines with various displacement. In general, no matter the trend and requirements of external environmental factors or the limitations of internal technical factors, electric turbine will be a technology that cannot be ignored by various manufacturers, regions and countries in the next 5-10 years, even before electric vehicles become the mainstream vehicles, with considerable development prospects.
By cooperating with other turbines, electric turbines can greatly reduce turbine hysteresis, which is expected to achieve a series of advantages such as high performance with small displacement, greatly improving fuel economy and reducing environmental pressure. However, at present, electric turbines still have some drawbacks, such as uneven market quality and insufficient service life. However, with the development of electric turbine technology, major manufacturers may gradually overcome various technical problems. Electric turbines will make great contributions to automobile displacement control, performance optimization, lightweight and other aspects, which is worth expecting.
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